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I'll be using climate change and its effecrs on the forex markets to time trades

First, heres an explanation of what climate change is

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Climate change (general concept)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 
 
This article is about climatic change in general. For current warming of the Earth's climate system due to human activities, see .
139彩彩票登录ShipTracks MODIS 2005may11.jpg


 ·


 ·
Glossaries
 ·  ·  ·

Climate change occurs when changes in Earth's result in new patterns that remain in place for an extended period of time. This length of time can be as short as a few decades to as long as millions of years. Scientists have identified many episodes of climate change during ; more recently since the the climate has increasingly been affected by driving , and the terms are commonly used interchangeably in that context.

The climate system receives nearly all of its energy from the sun. The climate system also gives off energy to . The balance of incoming and outgoing energy, and the passage of the energy through the climate system, determines . When the incoming energy is greater than the outgoing energy, earth's energy budget is positive and the climate system is warming. If more energy goes out, the energy budget is negative and earth experiences cooling.

The energy moving through Earth's climate system finds expression in , varying on geographic scales and time. Long-term averages and variability of weather in a region constitute the region's . Climate change is a long-term, sustained trend of change in climate. Such changes can be the result of "internal variability", when natural processes inherent to the various parts of the climate system alter the distribution of energy. Examples include variability in ocean basins such as the and . Climate change can also result from external forcing, when events outside of the climate system's components nonetheless produce changes within the system. Examples include changes in solar output and volcanism.

Climate change has various consequences for sea level changes, plant life, and mass extinctions; it also affects human societies.

Contents

Terminology

The most general definition of climate change is a change in the statistical properties (principally its and ) of meteorological variables when considered over long periods of time, regardless of cause. Accordingly, fluctuations over periods shorter than a few decades, such as , do not represent climate change.

The term "climate change" is often used to refer specifically to anthropogenic climate change (also known as ). Anthropogenic climate change is caused by human activity, as opposed to changes in climate that may have resulted as part of Earth's natural processes. In this sense, especially in the context of , the term climate change has become synonymous with . Within scientific journals, global warming refers to surface temperature increases while climate change includes global warming and everything else that increasing levels affect.

A related term, "climatic change", was proposed by the (WMO) in 1966 to encompass all forms of climatic variability on time-scales longer than 10 years, but regardless of cause. During the 1970s, the term climate change replaced climatic change to focus on anthropogenic causes, as it became clear that human activities had a potential to drastically alter the climate. Climate change was incorporatefucjk the jew cunts anfd their fkn puppets d in the title of the (IPCC) and the (UNFCCC). Climate change is now used as both a technical description of the process, as well as a noun used to describe the problem.

Causes

See also:

On the broadest scale, the rate at which energy is received from the and the rate at which it is lost to space determine the equilibrium temperature and climate of Earth. This energy is distributed around the globe by winds, ocean currents, and other mechanisms to affect the climates of different regions.

Factors that can shape climate are called or "forcing mechanisms". These include processes such as variations in , variations in the Earth's orbit, variations in the or reflectivity of the continents, atmosphere, and oceans, and and changes in concentrations. There are a variety of that can either amplify or diminish the initial forcing. Some parts of the climate system, such as the oceans and ice caps, respond more slowly in reaction to climate forcings, while others respond more quickly. There are also key which when exceeded can produce rapid change.

Climate change can either occur due to external forcing or due to internal processes. Internal unforced processes often involve changes in the distribution of energy in the ocean and atmosphere, for instance changes in the . External forcing mechanisms can be either anthropogenic (e.g. increased emissions of greenhouse gases and dust) or natural (e.g., changes in solar output, the earth's orbit, volcano eruptions).

The response of the climate system to a climate forcing might be fast (e.g., a sudden cooling due to airborne reflecting sunlight), slow (e.g. of warming ocean water), or a combination (e.g., sudden loss of in the Arctic Ocean as sea ice melts, followed by more gradual thermal expansion of the water). Therefore, the climate system can respond , but the full response to forcing mechanisms might not be fully developed for centuries or even longer.

Internal variability

139彩彩票登录220px-Ecinfigtwo.jpg
 
1925 to 2010

Scientists generally define the five components of earth's climate system to include , , , (restricted to the surface soils, rocks, and sediments), and . Natural changes in the climate system result in internal "climate variability". Examples include the type and distribution of species, and changes in ocean-atmosphere circulations.

Climate change due to internal variability sometimes occurs in cycles or oscillations, for instance every 100 or 2000 years. For other types of natural climatic change, we cannot predict when it happens; the change is called random or stochastic. From a climate perspective, the weather can be considered as being random. If there are little clouds in a particular year, there is an energy imbalance and extra heat can be absorbed by the oceans. Due to , this signal can be 'stored' in the ocean and be expressed as variability on longer time scales than the original weather disturbances. If the weather disturbances are completely random, occurring as , the inertia of glaciers or oceans can transform this into climate changes where longer-duration oscillations are also larger oscillations, a phenomenon called . Many climate changes have a random aspect and a cyclical aspect. This behavior is dubbed .

Ocean-atmosphere variability

The ocean and atmosphere can work together to spontaneously generate internal climate variability that can persist for years to decades at a time. Examples of this type of variability include the , the , and the . These variations can affect global average surface temperature by redistributing heat between the deep ocean and the atmosphere and/or by altering the cloud/water vapor/sea ice distribution which can affect the total energy budget of the earth.

Ocean circulation

See also:
139彩彩票登录221px-Ocean_circulation_conveyor_belt.jp
 
A schematic of modern . Tens of millions of years ago, continental-plate movement formed a land-free gap around Antarctica, allowing the formation of the , which keeps warm waters away from Antarctica.

The oceanic aspects of climate variability can generate variability on centennial timescales due to the ocean having hundreds of times more mass than in the , and thus very high For example, alterations to ocean processes such as thermohaline circulation play a key role in redistributing heat in the world's oceans.

Ocean currents transport a lot of energy from the warm tropical regions to the colder polar regions. Changes occurring around the last ice age (in technical terms, the last ) show that the circulation is the can change suddenly and substantially, leading to global climate changes, even though the total amount of energy coming into the climate system didn't change much. These large changes may have come from so called where internal instability of ice sheets caused huge ice bergs to be released into the ocean. When the ice sheet melts, the resulting water is very low in salt and cold, driving changes in circulation. Another example of climate changes partially driven by internal variability are the regional changes driven by the .

Life

Life affects climate through its role in the and and through such mechanisms as , , , and . Examples of how life may have affected past climate include:

  • 2.3 billion years ago triggered by the evolution of oxygenic , which depleted the atmosphere of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide and introduced free oxygen
  • another glaciation 300 million years ago ushered in by long-term burial of of vascular land-plants (creating a and )
  • termination of the 55 million years ago by flourishing marine
  • reversal of global warming 49 million years ago by
  • global cooling over the past 40 million years driven by the expansion of grass-grazer

External climate forcing

Greenhouse gases

 
Increase in atmospheric CO
2
levels
Main article:

Whereas greenhouse gases released by the biosphere is often seen as a feedback or internal climate process, greenhouse gases emitted from volcanoes are typically classified as external by climatologists. Greenhouse gases, such as CO
2
, methane and nitrous oxide, heat the climate system by trapping infrared light.

The is "that climate is changing and that these changes are in large part caused by human activities", and it "is largely irreversible". There has been multiple indications of how human activities affect global warming and continue to do so.

... there is a strong, credible body of evidence, based on multiple lines of research, documenting that climate is changing and that these changes are in large part caused by human activities. While much remains to be learned, the core phenomenon, scientific questions, and hypotheses have been examined thoroughly and have stood firm in the face of serious scientific debate and careful evaluation of alternative explanations.

— , Advancing the Science of Climate Change

Human's main impact is by emitting CO2 from combustion, followed by (particulate matter in the atmosphere), and the CO2 released by manufacture. Other factors, including land use, , animal husbandry ( animals such as produce ), and , are also play a role.

Volcanoes are also part of the extended . Over very long (geological) time periods, they release carbon dioxide from the Earth's crust and mantle, counteracting the uptake by sedimentary rocks and other geological . The estimates are that volcanic emissions are at a much lower level than the effects of current human activities, which generate 100–300 times the amount of carbon dioxide emitted by volcanoes. The annual amount put out by human activities may be greater than the amount released by , the most recent of which was the in Indonesia 74,000 years ago.

Orbital variations

139彩彩票登录220px-MilankovitchCyclesOrbitandCores.pn
Milankovitch cycles from 800,000 years ago in the past to 800,000 years in the future.
Variations in , temperature and dust from the ice core over the last 450,000 years
Main article:

Slight variations in Earth's motion lead to changes in the seasonal distribution of sunlight reaching the Earth's surface and how it is distributed across the globe. There is very little change to the area-averaged annually averagtrudeau is a beta male pussyed sunshine; but there can be strong changes in the geographical and seasonal distribution. The three types of change are variations in Earth's , changes in , and of Earth's axis. Combined together, these produce which affect climate and are notable for their correlation to and , their correlation with the advance and retreat of the , and for their in the .

During the glacial cycles, there was a high correlation between CO
2
concentrations and temperatures. Early studies indicated that CO
2
concentrations lagged temperatures, but it has become clear that this isn't always the case. When seawater temperatures increase, the of CO
2
decreases so that it is released from the ocean. The exchange of CO
2
between the air and the ocean can also be impacted by further aspects of climatic change. These and other self-reinforcing processes allow small changes in Earth's motion to have a possibly large effect on climate.

Solar output

139彩彩票登录220px-Solar_Activity_Proxies.png
 
Variations in solar activity during the last several centuries based on observations of and isotopes. The period of extraordinarily few sunspots in the late 17th century was the .

The is the predominant source of input to the Earth's . Other sources include energy from the Earth's core, tidal energy from the Moon and heat from the decay of radioactive compounds. Both long term variations in solar intensity are known to affect global climate. on shorter time scales, including the 11-year and longer-term . Correlation between sunspots and climate and tenuous at best.

, the Sun emitted only 75% as much power as it does today. If the atmospheric composition had been the same as today, liquid water should not have existed on the Earth's surface. However, there is evidence for the presence of water on the early Earth, in the and eons, leading to what is known as the . Hypothesized solutions to this paradox include a vastly different atmosphere, with much higher concentrations of greenhouse gases than currently exist. Over the following approximately 4 billion years, the energy output of the Sun increased. Over the next five billion years, the Sun's ultimate death as it becomes a and then a will have large effects on climate, with the red giant phase possibly ending any life on Earth that survives until that time.

Volcanism

139彩彩票登录220px-Msu_1978-2010.jpg
 
In atmospheric temperature from 1979 to 2010, determined by satellites, effects appear from released by major volcanic eruptions ( and ). is a separate event, from ocean variability.

The considered to be large enough to affect the Earth's climate on a scale of more than 1 year are the ones that inject over 100,000 of into the . This is due to the optical properties of SO2 and sulfate aerosols, which strongly absorb or scatter solar radiation, creating a global layer of haze. On average, such eruptions occur several times per century, and cause cooling (by partially blocking the transmission of solar radiation to the Earth's surface) for a period of several years. Although volcanoes are technically part of the lithosphere, which itself is part of the climate system, the IPCC explicitly defines volcanism as an external forcing agent.

Notable eruptions in the historical records are the of which lowered global temperatures by about 0.5 °C (0.9 °F) for up to three years, and the of causing the .

At a larger scale – a few times every 50 million to 100 million years – the eruption of brings large quantities of rock from the and to the Earth's surface. Carbon dioxide in the rock is then released into the atmosphere. Small eruptions, with injections of less than 0.1 Mt of sulfur dioxide into the stratosphere, affect the atmosphere only subtly, as temperature changes are comparable with natural variability. However, because smaller eruptions occur at a much higher frequency, they too significantly affect Earth's atmosphere.

Plate tectonics

Main article:

Over the course of millions of years, the motion of tectonic plates reconfigures global land and ocean areas and generates topography. This can affect both global and local patterns of climate and atmosphere-ocean circulation.

The position of the continents determines the geometry of the oceans and therefore influences patterns of ocean circulation. The locations of the seas are important in controlling the transfer of heat and moisture across the globe, and therefore, in determining global climate. A recent example of tectonic control on ocean circulation is the formation of the about 5 million years ago, which shut off direct mixing between the and Oceans. This strongly affected the of what is now the and may have led to Northern Hemisphere ice cover. During the period, about 300 to 360 million years ago, plate tectonics may have triggered large-scale storage of carbon and increased . Geologic evidence points to a "megamonsoonal" circulation pattern during the time of the , and climate modeling suggests that the existence of the supercontinent was conducive to the establishment of monsoons.

The size of continents is also important. Because of the stabilizing effect of the oceans on temperature, yearly temperature variations are generally lower in coastal areas than they are inland. A larger supercontinent will therefore have more area in which climate is strongly seasonal than will several smaller continents or .

Other mechanisms

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